There is a greater variety of coat colors and patterns found in domestic dogs than in the wolves, even though dogs and wolves are of the same genus. Coat colors in dogs were not likely initially selected by humans but "were probably unintended outcomes of early tameness. Research has found that tameness brings associated inherited changes, especially in coat colors and patterns. Source: Wikipedia, Search tern: Coat (Dog)

As described in the evolution theory of dogs there is a large amount of (although inadequate yet to prove the theory) scientific evidences available for most scientists to believe that dogs have evolved from wolves. Although very few of the breeds such as German shepherd and Husky Breeds of dogs exemplify the design of wolves. The reason as you may have guessed… Selective breeding’.

As wolves the basic design of dogs is of a hunter. Long legs, large lungs, no bones attachment between legs and shoulder which gives shock absorbing effect while running, a long muzzle with specialized teeth to grip and crush and powerful muscles that do not tire easily.  

The design of today’s dogs is result of human interference with nature – some for good, some for bad – which we explained on selective breeding page. All though all breed of dogs look distinctively different from each other, the basic design of dogs remain similar. Well muscled, Built for endurance, with balanced proportion of height and length, and the ability to use all senses to their maximum capacity. Some exceptions are found in toy and sniffer group.

One of the factors that makes dogs design the most varied compared to any mammals in the world is the verity of sizes, colors and their coat length. Dogs have coat as varied as dog breeds. ‘Mexican hairless dog’ (also known as Xoloitzcuintli or Xoloitzcuintleor Xolo), PeruvianInca Orchid, Hairless Khala and Chinese Crested Dog which have no hair at all on any part of their body, compared to Afghan hound, German shepherd, St. Bernard, Newfoundland which have long and double coat. Similarly in size, Chihuahua is recognized as the smallest breed of dogs in the world which stands only 6” to 9” tall compared to Great Dane and Irish Wolf Hound which stands above 33” of height at shoulder. Dogs are found in various colors as well. Brown, Fawn, White, Black, Liver, Copper, Red, Grey, Blue, Gold, Harlequin, Brindle, Mantle and combination of other colors in pattern of spots or patches.

This is due to human invasion in nature’s course. For thousands of years dogs have been bred selectively and modified to suite a specific task. To achieve this expertise that dogs require, humans took control of breeding. Producing dogs for sniffing, hunting, war, guarding, retrieving, herding, toy breeds, sporting and now even for guiding the blind.

This demands some basic design changes, for example, a war dog had to be huge, powerful, fearless, agile and aggressive with good eyesight and powerful flesh tearing and bone crushing jaws. On the other hand a toy dog needs to be cute, fluffy, relaxed and patient. The sniffer dog needs to be lighter (Sometimes shorter in proportion of its length), focused and a bit stubborn, with longer snout and good endurance. A guard dog on the contrary needs to be a bit like war dogs but rather then the raw aggression it needs to be more vigilant, patient, possessive and loving. These changes bring the wide variety of design we see in today’s breed of dogs.  

Some research shows that the color pattern seen in today’s breed may not be intended by humans while taming the dog in early years. It could be associated with inherited changes caused by taming.

We would like to talk more about the design of each breed but there being more then 410 distinct breeds of dogs it is impossible for us to describe it here.. We recommend you to go though the b section to know more about each breed in more detail.