Dogs see in color, but not the same way that we do. Veterinary ophthalmologists have found that dogs are similar to people with red/green color blindness, meaning they can see bluish and greenish shades but not reddish ones. To a dog, a bright orange ball on a grassy lawn appears as a light greenish ball in a greenish grass.
Dog's like humans can express their sentiments through their eyes. When there are disorders of the eyes, the dog not only has impaired sight, but impaired ability to communicate. While some diseases are inherited some could be caused by infection and other allergies.
 
Barring a few conditions most eye conditions in dogs are same as humans. Here is a list of all common eye conditions. Understanding a few of the more common conditions of the eyes can help owners detect problems and get their dog to the veterinarian as soon as possible.